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Training Lectures

Training Lecture 1

Geosynthetic Reinforced Embankments on Soft Foundations
Robert D Holtz (University of Washington, USA)

The design and construction of embankments on very soft foundations is one of most challenging geotechnical problems. Without some type of foundation soil improvement, failures are common especially on very soft sites. Soil reinforcement with geosynthetics is often the only economical solution, and some projects cannot be constructed without geosynthetics. The course begins with a brief overview of conventional treatments for soft ground construction. Some early case histories, mostly failures, are described that provided valuable lessons and concepts that we use today for design and construction. Next analysis and design procedures are outlined, along with the selection of the required properties for the geosynthetics and embankment soils. Sample specifications, cost considerations, as well as inspection and instrumentation are also described. Because proper construction is so critically important for success of these projects, a detailed discussion of construction procedures completes the course. Detailed lecture notes and copies of the course slides will be provided.

Course outline:

  1. A.Soft foundations and conventional solutions
  2. B.Case histories and lessons learned
  3. C.Design steps and procedures
  4. D.Soil and geosynthetics properties
  5. E.Specifications, inspection, and cost considerations
  6. F.Construction

Participants will be able to identify soft ground projects where geosynthetic reinforcement is feasible, understand design procedures and required properties, and appreciate the critical importance of proper construction procedures

Training Lecture 2

Designing with Geosynthetic Clay Liners
A. (Malek) Bouazza (Monash University, Australia)
This training lecture will provide practical technical information for designing environmentally sound and economical waste containments covers and liners using GCLs. It will improve the ability to select and properly engineer materials by learning about the types of GCLs and their properties and applications; learn about their hydraulic, gas and chemical compatibility properties, strength properties and design parameters.

Training Lecture 3

Design and Construction of Very High Tiered Reinforced Soil Retaining Walls in Difficult Conditions
Rajagopal Karpurapu (Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India)

This lecture will cover the topic of design and construction of tiered reinforced soil retaining walls. The design of these walls is based on semi-empirical methods due to the complex stress distribution in the lower tiers. This lecture will review the different methods available for their design and compare them against the results from systematic finite element analyses. The results will be illustrated against observed performance of constructed tiered walls. The case histories of different tiered walls constructed in India and elsewhere will be presented. The results from global stability analyses of these walls will be used to demonstrate the importance of the length of reinforcement layers in the upper tiers. The construction procedure will be explained from a case study of 41 m high and 4-tier wall in India. This wall was built using modular block facing units and geocomposite as reinforcement. The connection between the blocks and the reinforcement was through friction alone. The connection capacity was enhanced by using a kink at the front facing. The lecture will explain the special laboratory tests performed to determine the connection strength between the blocks and the reinforcement layers. The special care taken to prevent the surface runoff frm infiltrating into the backfill soil will be highlighted.

Training Lecture 4

Pavement Structures Reinforced with Geosynthetics
Krystyna Kazimierowicz-Frankowska (Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydro-Engineering, Poland)

Geosynthetics have a wide range of applications and they are currently used in many civil engineering projects. This kind of materials is especially popular in road engineering. Geosynthetic reinforcement is widely used to strengthen new pavements and to rehabilitate existing road structures. Geosynthetic layers are incorporated into bituminous and/or aggregate layers. They are also applied in the road subgrade. The main purpose of the proposed Training Lecture is to present the current state-of-the-art in this field. The Session will consist of two parts entitled:

  1. 1.Reinforcement in pavement structures – where analysis of the action of geosynthetic reinforcements in different kinds of pavements (unpaved and paved) will be performed.  Additionally, results of experimental investigations will be presented. Methods and mechanisms that can be used to describe the reinforcement’s action will be discussed. Its beneficial effects on the ultimate bearing capacity of pavement subgrade will be explained.
  2. 2.The possibility of extending the lifetime of pavement structures by inclusion of geosynthetics layers – in this part of the Session particular attention will be paid to the influence of pavement condition (structure with or without cracks) on the beneficial effects of reinforcement. The effectiveness of geosynthetics layers in delaying the propagation of reflective cracks and in limiting road structure deformation under large numbers of traffic loads will be discussed on the basis of selected experimental results. The positive effects of geosynthetic layers on the structural deformation resistance of a typical pavement structure under traffic loading will be presented.